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Abstract


TURKISH CULTURE AND ART STRUCTURES

Anthropologic view point of speaking people in Turkish language which is a relatively homogeneous – Nogays, Uyghurs, Adygea, Kabardins, Garachays, Balkars, Gumugs, Mesheti Turks, Ossetian, Ingush, Chechen, Khevsur and etc. nations have dwelled in the territories of the north of Greater Caucasus mountains, from the shores of Black Sea to the Caspian Sea. They have dwelled as the Adygea(sapsugs, Abkhazians) in the West and as the Dagestan peoples (Avars, dargins, Lezghins) in the East.In the South Caucasus oghuz types – Azerbaijani Turks and Turkmens are from oghuz generation. Lezgian groups and kamiks are from oghuz generation too.To the list of Turkish language nations-azerbaijanians and ahishga Turks- includes to Mehseti Turks: (in Azerbaijan,Kirgizstan, Russia and Kazakhstan), balkars and garachaylis (in Konya, Anakara, Sivilia, Kayseri and Eskishehir), gumugs (kumik) (in Dagestan, Chechnya, Mozdak, Ossetia-Altay family), nogays-they calls also as karakalpaks and kazaks, (Dagestan, Stavrapol, Astrakhan and Chechnya) have dwelled on these territories in the result of different deportations and economic-social changes and in the result of migration and immigration.Turkic culture specially plays an importance role in the development of world culture and in the culture of the Middle East too. Turkish culture and arts have an ancient history. In the territory of the former Ottoman Empire have many architectural monuments, artistic, painting and miniature art samples are famous not only in Turkey also in far beyond of its borders.Beginning in the first half of 14-15th centuries, the Ottoman Empire began to develop in the building culture in the high level. In the building have reflected the national art characteristics and national art pearls of Turkey. In the buildings have seemed specific features of Seljuk’s traditions and cultural samples of Byzantine too.Type of religious architectures consisted of madrassas that have one or two floors’ gallery with closing small dombs in the opening square or rectangular yards. The gallery consisted of small rooms-cells opening to the internal general balcony, here lived the softas, it means the madrasa’s students. In the deep tacvarigroves carried out the auditoria function. One of the first such madrasas is the Suleiman Pasha Madrasa (Iznik) belonged to the first half of 14th century. Another type of religious architecture in the Middle East in whole Middle Ages were tomb-mausoleums that built in colored versions.



Keywords
Turkish–speaking people,uigurs,kurguz,architecture,monumennts



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