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Abstract


Soybean Pathogens In The Southeast Of Kazakhstan

The main regions of soybean cultivation are the irrigated lands of the southeast of Kazakhstan. She is a lucrative culture. In recent years, soybean crops in the republic have increased 4.5 times. This led to oversaturation of soybean rotations or its cultivation in permanent crops for a number of years, as well as seeds that are specializing in farming, imported from abroad, which seriously complicated the development of soybean fungal diseases. In the period from 2007 to 2015, as a result of route surveys of soybean sowing in southeast Kazakhstan and mycological analysis of seeds and affected plants, we identified more than 17 types of pathogens. The most common soybean diseases have been studied, fusariosis, septoriosis, ascochitis, peronosporosis or downy mildew, fomopsis, white and gray rot are dominant. The prevalence, harmfulness and biological characteristics of pathogens are established, and the main signs of their manifestation are described. Rizoctonia for the first time the cultivation of soybeans was observed in the Almaty region in the form of single affected plants or small foci in low parts of the field with high acidity. In 2016, the epiphytotic development of the disease was noted, which was facilitated by the weather conditions of the year. The maximum development of rhizoctonia reached 33.5%. Rizoktoniosom also affects potatoes, carrots, alfalfa, sainfoin, sugar beet, sorrel, cabbage salad, cucumber, pumpkin, tobacco and other crops. The first symptoms of the disease appear when sprouting seeds of soy. A high agrophysic enhances the resistance of soybean plants to rhizoctonia. Effective seed dressing with soybeans, 3 kg / t, derozole, 3 l / t. the incidence of soybean fusariosis in the conditions of Almaty and Zhambyl oblasts in the context of co-operating farms is from 0.5 to 13%. The disease manifests itself in the form of rot of seeds, sprouts and seedlings and these forms are most harmful in our conditions. White rot is widespread and harmful in the foothills of the Almaty region. The number of affected plants is in the range of 0.3 to 80%. In the years of mass spread of fungal diseases, yield losses reach 25-30%.



Keywords
Soybean, mushroom diseases, prevalence, harmfulness



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