Author :  

Year-Number: 2020-31
Language : null
Konu :
Number of pages: 1606-1616
Mendeley EndNote Alıntı Yap


Günümüz toplumlarında kadın ve erkek arasında eşit haklar önem taşımakta olsa da yetiştirilme tarzı ve fizyolojik yapılarından dolayı erkeklerin ve kadınların romantik ilişkilere yaklaşımlarında farklılıklar vardır. Psikoloji alanındaki cinsiyet farklılıkları araştırmaları erkekler ve kadınlar arasındaki bilişsel ve davranışsal farklılıkları araştırır. Bu araştırmalarda çeşitli biçimler alan deneysel biliş testlerini kullanır. Testler, IQ uzamsal muhakeme saldırganlık duygusu ve beyin yapısı ve işlevi gibi alanlardaki olası farklılıklara odaklanır ve farklılıkların bulunduğu sosyal ve çevresel faktörler, farklılıkların bulunduğu durumlarda araştırmacılar için farklılıkların doğuştan olup olmadığını değerlendirmek zor olabilir. Bu doğrultuda romantik ilişkilerde cinsiyet farkları literatürsel açıdan irdelenmiştir.



Although equal rights between men and women are important in today's societies, there are differences in the approach of men and women to romantic relationships due to their upbringing and physiological structures. Gender differences research in the field of psychology investigates the cognitive and behavioral differences between men and women. It uses experimental cognition tests that take various forms in these studies. The tests focus on possible differences in areas such as IQ spatial reasoning, sense of aggression and brain structure and function, and social and environmental factors where there are differences can be difficult for researchers to assess whether the differences are congenital. Accordingly, gender differences in romantic relationships have been examined in literature.


  • Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., &Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological

  • Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., &Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

  • Arnow, B. A., Desmond, J. E., Banner, L. L., Glover, G. H., Solomon, A., Polan, M. L., Lue, T. F. & Atlas,S. W. (2002). Brain activation and sexual arousal in healthy, heterosexual males. Brain. 125: 1014–1023. Bartels, A., & Zeki, S. (2000). The neural basis of romantic love. Neuroreport, 11: 3829–3834.

  • Bartels, A., & Zeki, S. (2004). The neural correlates of maternal and romantic love. NeuroImage, 21: 1155– 1166.

  • Baumeister, R. F., Wotman, S. R., & Stillwell, A. M. (1993). Unrequited love: On heartbreak, anger, guilt, scriptlessness and humiliation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64: 377–394.

  • Baumeister, R. F., & Dhavale, D. (2001). Two sides of romantic rejection. In M. R. Leary (Ed.), Interpersonal rejection (pp. 55–71). New York: Oxford University Press.

  • Beauregard, M., Levesque, J., & Bourgouin, P. (2001). Neural correlates of conscious selfregulation of emotion. Journal of Neuroscience, 21: 141-165.

  • Belsky, J. (1999). Modern evolutionary theory and patterns of attachment. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment (pp. 141–161). New York: Guilford.

  • Berman, S., & Hein, K. (1999). Adolescents and STDs. In K. K. Holmes, P. F. Sparling, P. A. Mardh, S. M.Lemon, W. E. Stamm, P. Piot, & J. M. Wasserheit (Eds.), Sexually transmitted diseases (pp. 129–142). New York: McGraw-Hill.

  • Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss: Attachment (Vol. 1). New York: Basic Books.

  • Breiter, H. C., Aharon, I., Kahneman, D., Dale, A., & Shizgal, P. (2001). Functional imaging of neural responses to expectancy and experience of monetary gains and losses. Neuron, 30: 619–639.

  • Buss, D. M., & Schmitt, D. P. (1993). Sexual Strategies Theory: An evolutionary perspective on human mating. Psychological Review, 100: 204–232.

  • Buss, D. M. & Schmitt, D. P. (2011). Evolutionary psychology and feminism. Sex Roles, 64 (9-10): 768. Buss, D. M. (1994). The evolution of desire: Strategies of human mating. New York: Basic Books.

  • Carter, C. S. (1992). Oxytocin and sexual behavior. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 16: 131–144.Carter, C. S., DeVries, A., Taymans, S. E., Roberts, R. L., Williams, J. R., & Getz, L. L. (1997). Peptidessteriods, and pair bonding. In C. S. Carter, I. I. Lederhendler, & B. Kirkpatrick (Eds.), The integrativeneurobiology of affiliation. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 807 (pp. 260–272). New York: The New York Academy of Sciences.

  • Cherlin, A. (2003). Marriage, divorce, and remarriage. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press (3rd ed.).

  • Chisholm, J. S. (1995). Love’s contingencies: The developmental socioecology of romantic passion. In W. Jankowiak (Ed.), Romantic passion: A universal experience? New York: Columbia University Press.

  • Coontz, S. (1992). The way we never were. New York: Basic Books

  • Cunningham, M. R., Roberts, R., Barbee, A. P., Druen, P. B., & Wu, C. (1995). Their ideas of attractivenessare, on the whole, the same as ours: Consistency and variability in the cross-cultural perception of female attractiveness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68: 261–279.

  • Davidson, R.J. (1994). Complexities in the search for emotion-specific physiology. In P.Ekman & R.J. Davidson (Eds.), The nature of emotion: Fundamental questions. New York: Oxford University Press.

  • Delgado, M. R., Nystrom, L. E., Fissel, C., Noll, D. C., & Fiez, J. A. (2000). Tracking the hemodynamic responses to reward and punishment in the striatum. Journal of Neurophysiology, 84: 3072–3077.

  • Deary, Ian J.; Irwing, Paul; Der, Geoff; Bates, Timothy C. (2007). Brother–sister differences in the g factor in intelligence: Analysis of full, opposite-sex siblings from the NLSY1979. Intelligence, 35 (5): 451–6

  • Downey, G., & Feldman, S. I. (1996). Implications of rejection sensitivity for intimate relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70: 1327–1343.

  • Downey, G., Freitas, A. L., Michaelis, B., & Khouri, H. (1998). The self-fulfilling prophecy in closerelationships: Rejection sensitivity and rejection by romantic partners. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75: 545–560.

  • Dozier, R. W. (2002). Why we hate: Understanding, curbing, and eliminating hate in ourselves and our world. New York: Contemporary Books.

  • Edwards, J. N., & Booth, A. (1994). Sexuality, marriage, and well-being: The middle years. In A. S. Rossi (Ed.), Sexuality across the life course. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  • Elliott, R., Newman, J. L., Longe, O. A., & Deakin, J. F. W. (2003). Differential response patterns in thestriatum and orbitofrontal cortex to financial reward in humans: A parametric functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Journal of Neuroscience, 23: 303–307.

  • Ellis, B.J. (1992). The evolution of sexual attraction: Evaluative mechanisms in women. In J. H. Barkow, L. Cosmides, & J. Tooby (Eds.), The adapted mind (pp. 267–288). New York: Oxford University Press.

  • Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: youth and crisis. New York: Norton

  • Fabre-Nys, C. (1998). Steroid control of monoamines in relation to sexual behaviour. Review of Reproduction, 3: 31–41.

  • Feingold, A. (1992). Gender differences in mate selection preferences: A test of the parental investment model. Psychological Bulletin, 112: 125–139.

  • Fiorillo, C. D., Tobler, P. N., & Schultz, W. (2003). Discrete coding of reward probablility and uncertainty by dopamine neurons. Science, 299: 1898–1901.

  • Fisher, H. E. (1992). Anatomy of love: The natural history of monogamy, adultery and divorce. New York: W.W. Norton.

  • Fisher, H. E. (1998). Lust, attraction, and attachment in mammalian reproduction. Human Nature, 9: 23–52.

  • Fisher, H. E., Aron, A., Mashek, D., Li, H., Strong, G., & Brown, L. L. (2002a). The neural mechanisms of mate choice: An hypothesis. Neuroendocrinology Letters, 23: 92–97.

  • Fisher, H. E., Aron, A., Mashek, D., Strong, G., Li, H., & Brown, L. L. (2002b). Defining the brain systems of lust, romantic attraction and attachment. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 31: 413–419.

  • Fisher, H. E., Aron, A., Mashek, D., Strong, G., Li, H., & Brown, L. L. (2003). Early stage intense romanticlove activates cortical-basal-ganglia reward/motivation, emotion and attention systems: An fMRI study of adynamic network that varies with relationship length, passion intensity and gender. Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, New Orleans, November 11.

  • Fisher, H. E. (2004). Why we love: The nature and chemistry of romantic love. New York: Henry Holt.

  • Fremouw, W. J., Westrup, D., & Pennypacker, J. (1997). Stalking on campus: The prevalence and strategies for coping with stalking. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 42: 664–667.

  • Furman, W., & Wehner, E. A. (1994). Romantic views: Toward a theory of adolescent romantic relationships.In R. Montemayor, G. Adams, & T. Gullota (Eds.), Personal relationships during adolescence (pp. 168–175). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • Gangestad, S. W., & Thornhill, R. (1997). The evolutionary psychology of extrapair sex: The role of fluctuating asymmetry. Evolution and Human Behavior, 18: 69–88.

  • Gangestad, S. W. (2001). Adaptive design, selective history, and women’s sexual motivations. In J. A. French,A. C. Kamil, & D. W. Leger (Eds.), Evolutionary psychology and motivation (pp. 37–74). Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.

  • Gangestad, S. W., & Cousins, A. J. (2001). Adaptive design, female mate preferences, and shifts across the menstrual cycle. Annual Review of Sex Research, 12: 145–185.

  • Gingrich, B., Liu, Y., Cascio, C., Wang, Z., & Insel, T. R. (2000). D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens areimportant for social attachment in female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Behavioral Neuroscience, 114: 173–183.

  • Gold, J. I. (2003). Linking reward expectations of behavior in the basal ganglia. Trends in Neuroscience, 26: 12–14.

  • Grammer, K., Renninger, L., & Fischer, B. (2004). Disco clothing, female sexual motivation, and relationship status: Is she dressed to impress? Journal of Sex Research, 41: 66–74.

  • Gugliotta, G. (1997). The stalkers are out there. The Washington Post Weekly Edition. Dec. 8, p. 35.Hatfield, E., & Rapson, R. (1993). Historical and cross-cultural perspectives on passionate love and sexual desire. Annual Review of Sex Research, 4: 67–98.

  • Hatfield, E., & Rapson, R. (1996). Love and sex: Cross-cultural perspectives. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

  • Hazan, C., & Shaver, P. (1987). Romantic love conceptualized as an attachment process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52: 511–524.

  • Herbert, J. (1996). Sexuality, stress and the chemical architecture of the brain. Annual Review of Sex Research, 7: 1–44.

  • Jones, D. (1995). Sexual selection, physical attractiveness, and facial neoteny: Cross-cultural evidence and implications. Current Anthropology, 36: 723–748.

  • Karama, S., Lecours, A. R., Leroux, J. M., Bourgouin, P., Beaudoin, G., Joubert, S., & Beauregard, M. (2002).Areas of brain activation in males and females during viewing of erotic film excerpts. Human Brain Mapping,Krauth-Gruber, S., Ric, F. & Niedenthal, P. M. (2006). Psychology of emotion: Interpersonal, experiential, and cognitive approaches. New York, USA: Psychology Press.

  • Lauman, E., Gagnon, J., Michael, R., & Michaels, S. (1994). The social organization of sexuality: Sexual practices in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  • Leary, M. R. (Ed.) (2001). Interpersonal rejection. New York: Oxford University Press.

  • Lee, E. (2008). Sex differences: summarizing more than a century of scientific research. East Sussex, England: Psychology Press.

  • Lim, M. M., Murphy, A. Z., & Young, L. J. (2004). Ventral striatopallidal oxytocin and vasopressin V1areceptors in the monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). Journal of Comparative Neurology, 468:Luker, K. (1996). Dubious conceptions: The politics of teenage pregnancy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

  • Martin-Soelch, C., Leenders, K. L., Chevalley, A. F., Missimer, J., Kunig, G., Magyar, S., Mino, A., & Schultz,W. (2001). Reward mechanisms in the brain and their role in dependence: evidence from neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies. Brain Research Reviews, 36: 139–149.

  • McGinn, D. (2004). Mating 101, Social scientists have recently begun to study sex on campus in search of the truth of hooking up. Newsweek, October 4, n.p.

  • Mearns, J. (1991). Coping with a breakup: Negative mood regulation expectancies and depression following the end of a romantic relationship. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60: 327–334.

  • Meloy, J. R., & Gothard, S. (1995). A demographic and clinical comparison of obsessional followers and offenders with mental disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152: 258–263.

  • Meloy, J. R. (Ed.) (1998). The psychology of stalking: Clinical and forensic perspective. New York: Academic Press.

  • Meloy, J. R. (2001). When stalkers become violent: The threat to public figures and private lives. Psychiatric Annals, 33: 658–665.

  • Nemeroff, C. B. (1998). The neurobiology of depression. Scientific American, 278: 42–49.

  • Nesse, R. (1991). What good is feeling bad––The evolutionary benefits of psychic pain. The Sciences: Journal of the New York Academy of Sciences, 31: 30–37.

  • Panksepp, J. (1998). Affective neuroscience: The foundations of human and animal emotions. New York:Oxford University Press.Pedersen, F. A. (1991). Secular trends in human sex ratios: Their influence on individual and family behavior. Human Nature, 2: 271–291.

  • Penton-Voak, I. S., & Perret, D. I. (2000). Female preference for male faces changes cyclically—Further evidence. Evolution and Human Behavior, 20: 295–307.

  • Penton-Voak, I. S., & Chen, J. Y. (2004). High salivary testosterone is linked to masculine male facial appearance in humans. Evolution and Human Behavior, 25: 229–241.

  • Pitkow, L. J., Sharer, C. A., Ren, X., Insel, T. R., Terwilliger, E. F., & Young, L. J. (2001). Facilitation ofaffiliation and pair-bond formation by vasopresin receptor gene transfer into the ventral forebrain of a monogamous vole. Journal of Neuroscience, 21: 7392–7396.

  • Regan, P. C. (1996). Rhythms of desire: The association between menstrual cycle phases and female sexual desire. The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, 5: 145–156.

  • Rosenthal, N. E. (2002). The emotional revolution: How the new science of feelings can transform your life. New York: Citadel Press Books.

  • Schmitt, D. P., Alcalay, L., Allik, J., Ault, L., Austers, I., Bennett, K. L., et al. (2003). Universal sex differencesin the desire for sexual variety: Tests from 52 nations, 6 continents, and 13 islands. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85: 85–104.

  • Schmitt, D. P., Alcalay, L., Allik, J., Angleiter, A., Ault, L., Austers, I., et al. (2004). Patterns and universalsof mate poaching across 53 nations: The effects of sex, culture, and personality on romantically attracting another person’s partner. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86: 560–584.

  • Schultz, W., Dayan, P., & Read Montague, P. (1997). A neural substrate of prediction and reward. Science, Schultz, W. (2000). Multiple reward signals in the brain: Nature reviews. Neuroscience, 1: 199–207.

  • Shackelford, T. K., & Larsen, R. J. (1999). Facial attractiveness and physical health. Evolution and Human Behavior, 20: 71–76.

  • Sherwin, B. B. (1994). Sex hormones and psychological functioning in postmenopausal women. Experimental Gerontology, 29: 423–430.

  • Singh, D. (1993). Adaptive significance of female physical attractiveness: Role of waist-tohip ratio. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65: 293–307.

  • Soler, C., Nunez, M., Gutierrez, R., Nunez, J., Medina, P., Sancho, M., Alvarez, J., & Nunez, A. (2003). Facial attractiveness in men provides clues to semen quality. Evolution and Human Behavior, 24: 199–207.

  • Sullivan, H. S. (1953). The interpersonal theory of psychiatry. New York: Norton

  • Symons, D. (1979). The evolution of human sexuality. New York: Oxford University Press. Taffel, R. (1990). The politics of mood. The Family Therapy Networker, 49–53.

  • Tavris, C. (1992). The mismeasure of woman. New York: Simon & Schuster.

  • Thornhill, R., Gangestad, S. W., & Comer, R. (1995). Human female orgasm and mate fluctuating asymmetry. Animal Behaviour, 50: 1601–1615.

  • Thornhill, R., & Gangestad, S. W. (1999). The scent of symmetry: A human sex pheromone that signals fitness? Evolution and Human Behavior, 20: 175–201.

  • Trivers, R. (1972). Parental investment and sexual selection. In B. Campbell (Ed.), Sexual selection and the descent of man: 1871–1971 (pp. 136–179). Chicago: Aldine.

  • Van Goozen, S., Wiegant, V. M., Endert, E., Helmond, F. A., & Van de Poll, N. E. (1997).Psychoendocrinological assessment of the menstrual cycle: The relationship between hormones, sexuality, and mood. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 26: 359–382.

  • Walster, E., & Bercheid, E. (1972). Adrenaline makes the heart grow fonder. Psychology Today, June, n.p.

  • Wang, Z, Yu, G., Cascio, C., Liu, Y., Gingrich, B., & Insel, T. R. (1999). Dopamine D2 receptor-mediatedregulation of partner preferences in female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster): a mechanism for pair bonding? Behavioral Neuroscience, 113: 602–611.

  • Watson, P. J., & Andrews, P. W. (2002). Toward a revised evolutionary adaptationist analysis of depression: The social navigation hypothesis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 72: 1–14.

  • Wilson, M., & Daly, M. (1992). The man who mistook his wife for a chattel. In J. H. Barkow, L. Cosmides,& J. Tooby (Eds.), The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of sculpture. New York: Wise, R. A (1996). Neurobiology of addiction. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 6: 243.

  • Wolkstein, D. (1991). The first love stories. New York: Harper Perennial.

  • Young L. J., Lang, Z., & Insel, T. R. (1998). Neuroendocrine bases of monogamy. TINS, 21: 71–75.

  • Young, L. J., Nilsen, R., Waymire, K. G., MacGregor, G. R., & Insel, T. R. (1999). Increased affiliativeresponse to vasopresin in mice expressing the V1a receptor from a monogamous vile. Nature, 400: 766–768 Zelitzer, V. (1985). Pricing the priceless child. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

  • Article Statistics